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The second thing to know about neuro-plasticity is that the most powerful way to change your brain is not actually medication, it’s actually behaviour, because that is what it was designed to change in relation to. And not just any behaviour but specifically mental behaviour or mental habit
Based on what we know about contemplative neuroscience and neuroplasticity, we can actually start to think about kindness, energy, compassion, generosity, not as innate qualities that you have or don’t have but as actually skills that you can cultivate through practice and training; And we now know that these practices can cultivate these qualities.
A growing body of scientific evidence indicates that we have much more control over our minds, personalities and personal illnesses than was ever believed to exist before, and it is all occurring at the same time that a flood of other research is exposing the benefits of humor on brain functioning. The ability to change the structure and functioning of the brain through experiences and the conscious use of directed thoughts is referred to as neuroplasticity.
The latest research indicates that the adult brain not only has the ability to repair damaged regions, but to grow new neurons; that willful activity has the power to shape the brain in new directions far into adulthood.
We hear a lot about the effects of illness and old age on the mind, but in the not-too-distant future, we will begin hearing more about the effects of the mind on the mind, and the power of the mind to direct and master its own fate.
The latest discoveries into how the brain responds to positive stimuli such as humor could open doors to new therapies for depression, anxiety and other common mental illnesses. Perhaps by somehow stimulating and enhancing the humor processing regions in the brains of the depressed or anxious we can reverse the chemistry of their conditions. Why not use the positive powers of the brain to counter its negative powers?
It is a question that the fields of positive psychology and Gelotology are currently exploring. Gelotologists study the physiological and psychological effects of laughter, and practitioners of positive psychology seek to utilize personal strengths and positive emotions to build resiliency and psychological wellbeing in their clients. Both fields are the source of much research in the use of humor as a coping mechanism.
Unfortunately, researchers have demonstrated repeatedly that negative information has a greater impact on the brain than positive information. As a quick self-test of this concept, imagine that you won a $500 gift certificate to your favorite store. How would that feel?
Now imagine that, instead of winning the gift certificate, you lost $500. Research indicates that the intensity of your response to each of these situations will differ significantly, with the distress of losing $500 far outweighing the pleasure of gaining $500.
This outcome is so common that researchers have given it a name: the “negativity bias.” The negativity bias is a result of the of the fight-or-flight response that is activated only during negative experiences. The adrenaline rush and increased heart rate that occur with the fight-or-flight response cause negative events to be experienced more intensely and imprinted on the brain more firmly. The challenge for humor-based therapies will be determining how to apply the humorous stimuli in such a way that it has greater influence in shaping the brain than co-occurring, and usually overpowering, negative experiences.
The brain gives more attention to negative experiences over positive ones because negative events pose a chance of danger. By default, the brain alerts itself to potential threats in the environment, so awareness of positive aspects takes deliberate effort. The most effective therapies would use methods of making our brains more responsive to the positive than the negative.
Of course, we all differ in the degree to which we respond to the negativity bias. Some people are perpetually cheerful and upbeat while others suffer from a complete inability to experience pleasure or see the so-called bright side.
Researchers have found that when depressed people look at photos of fearful faces, they experience greater activation in the amygdala (responsible for emotion control) than nondepressed extroverts. When shown smiling faces, however, the reverse effect occurs, and the brains of the extroverts respond with greater activity than those who are depressed. Tal Yarkoni of Washington University in St. Louis, a student of the human brain’s responses to emotions, interpreted these results as follows: -
Part of the reason extroverts seek social contact more often than neurotics may be that their reward system responds more positively to other people’s smiles, causing the extrovert to feel greater pleasure when they are around other people. On the other hand, individuals high on neuroticism may have brains that overreact to negative emotions, leading them to experience more anxiety and depression. Although some people are naturally more negative, negative events still have a greater impact on everyone’s brains than positive events do. That impact often takes the form of even further vigilance regarding negative information and potential threats in the environment that must be constantly monitored. This vicious cycle is what leads so many people spiraling down rabbit holes of depression and extreme anxiety. There is a constant negative feedback loop at play that, if not interrupted or countered, can lead to significant psychological distress.
Negative experiences frequently are unavoidable, but reframing or reinterpreting the feedback loop is possible. Redefining negative situations in more positive or humorous terms counters the adverse psychological effects that would otherwise be experienced. While we have all heard the tragic stories of fired employees who return to their former workplaces to take vengeance upon those responsible for visiting such a disgrace upon them, the news media fails to report to us about those who, upon being fired, view it as an opportunity to find more fulfilling work or discover a new talent.
People inclined to react angrily or violently can, through conscious effort and the powers of neuroplasticity, use humor to redirect their thoughts more positively. Naturally negative people can develop more optimistic qualities by repeatedly mimicking their more optimistic peers’ reactions to negative events and circumstances.
The negativity bias generally occurs outside conscious awareness, so the first step in countering it is to realize it exists.
The first time you do a task, such as driving a car to a new location, you have to focus and fully concentrate on remembering which turns to take and what landmarks to look out for. After you have taken that route several times, however, you are able to do it with minimal conscious effort. You can let your mind wander to other thoughts while you make those lefts and rights and pass the landmarks because the repetition has imprinted the route on the circuitry of your brain. The same effect is found when positive information is used to counter negativity. At first, the intentionally positive reactions may feel forced, unnatural and possibly somewhat difficult, but over time, they will become second nature — a happier nature.
Nichole Force has a Master’s degree in Counseling Psychology from Loyola Marymount University and is a member of Mensa, the high-IQ society. She believes laughter is the best medicine and studied improvisational comedy at the world famous Groundlings Theatre in Los Angeles and sketch comedy at the ACME Comedy Theatre in Hollywood. Nichole is a Los Angeles-based freelance writer and comedy club reviewer for the Los Angeles Examiner. She is writing a book called The Hidden Power of Humor, to be published later this year.
Life is too short to do work you don’t enjoy and even in a downturn successful career change is possible. In the UK, more and more people are seeking an improved work and family life balance, work that offers a sense of meaning and purpose and work that accords with personal strengths. Advances in technology are promoting the extinction of old careers in the printing and media industries along along with the introduction of innovative, information age careers. The retirement age has increased resulting in a more competitive market place where ongoing learning is vital for success in any career venture. It is more important than ever to take responsibility and find a career path you can not only love, but transfer into new and exciting market places. Defining who you are through personal branding and articulate personal portfolio management is becoming more and more essential for career success. Psychological fears arising from:-
Rachel Brushfield, Entrepreneur of http://www.careerstrategies.co.uk/ believes that people are really good at stopping themselves from doing what they really want! Changing a career can feel overwhelming and daunting, especially the more (commitments and) responsibilities you have, but fear is natural and can be overcome.
Rachel says that the key(to success) is to know your fears and work out how to tackle them so that you can move forward. The following are 20 common fears about career change that Rachel asks her clients to list in order of concern. Which do you relate to most?
My Future ~ Australia's career information and exploration service
Sometimes a change of job within a career field is not enough; nothing short of a move to an entirely new occupation or industry will do.
The need to make big changes like this can come from inside you, or can be imposed by outside circumstances or events.
Everybody likes to feel safe, but you also have to live in the real world, and recognise that change can be as much an opportunity as a threat. Because of the way the working world operates these days, it’s important not to be afraid when a career change announces itself. There’s no point trying to hang onto a job that no one can use any more. It’s not healthy to stay in a job where you’re stagnating, or your talents are going to waste. There’ll be times in your life when you need to review your situation and think about possible career change. Unpaid work, possibilities for learning, the kind of lifestyle you want and your changing roles within your family—any of these things can trigger career change, and you should consider all of them when you’re thinking of reinventing yourself. You can’t always tell when a change of career is coming, but sometimes there are clear signs. How do you know when you need a change?
It’s not always bad feelings that indicate oncoming change. You might feel as if you’ve accomplished what you intended to in this job. You might feel quite calm, happy that you’ve completed what you came to do, and happy to start thinking about what your next workplace challenge will be.
What should you do when you know change is coming?When you’re working up to a career change, all areas of your life are affected. Be careful, don’t rush any decisions and try to keep your anxieties to a manageable level. Try to take as much time as you need to:
Nisa Chitakasem of Position Ignition asks
1. Is there really a problem with your career?
In order to answer the big question, ask yourself several other questions to help decide whether you’re ready to leave your current career:
Consider whether or not you’re willing to learn new skills. Chances are if you commit to changing careers you will need to learn new skills appropriate to your career choice.
3. Can you afford it?
It’d be nice if we didn’t have to consider money when thinking about work options but unfortunately some of us do! Take into account where you stand financially when considering a career change, but don’t stay with your current career just for the money if the work itself is making you unhappy. No amount of money equates to happiness.
4. Maybe your job search skills just need help
If you’re currently out of work, don’t jump to the conclusion that you need a career change just because you’re not finding any work within your current field. Re-assess your job search instead: Review your CV to see if it’s relevant enough to the roles you’re applying for. Practice your interview technique with a friend. Connect with your network to find out about unadvertised jobs.
5. Take an honest look back
Of course, being out of work may be just the motivation you need to make a career change, if it genuinely would be the right move for you. Even if you don’t currently have a job you can still assess how happy you are in your current career area by asking yourself the above questions about your previous positions.
6. Follow your talent and passion
Think about what career you’d like to change to by considering what you’re good at and what you’re passionate about.
7. What about you impresses others
How do you define your talents and passions? Start right back from your childhood. What did people praise you for? What did you end up spending most of your spare time doing? Make a list and continue recalling your strengths and hobbies all the way through to the present day.
Consider not only the content of your ideal career but also the structure of it e.g. work out if you’d like to switch from full-time to part-time, or vice-versa.
9. Know your redlines
Get clear not only on what you want to do, but also on what you don’t want to do. What are you willing to negotiate over and what are you not?
10. Focus on one new direction only
By the way, if you think trying to pursue several career options at once is a good idea, it isn’t. The ‘scattergun’ approach will probably result in missing all the targets. If you focus on one career, one target- you’re more likely to get what you want.
Read more at: http://jobmob.co.il/blog/career-change-tips-questions/#ixzz1kT8kUFyz
Note: The above information is to be utilised at your own discretion. Chan6es Australia does not professionally endorse or recommend any service mentioned in the above promotion. All of the information used in this article is also freely available on Google.com
An episode of a long-running (50 years!) Canadian science documentary series which airs on the CBC, called "The Nature of Things", hosted by Dr. David Suzuki. This episode talks about breakthrough research in neuroplasticity, or using the brain's ability to heal itself in cases where it was previously thought impossible, or where treatments are often as difficult and traumatic as the disorders themselves. The episode is titled "Changing Your Mind".
The new research is producing some startling treatment methods with equally startling results.
Uploaded by SmilingSkeptic on Jan 28, 2011
She died on Christmas day of a massive heart attack. Looking at a shelf in her apartment, I saw fifteen self-help books on diet and exercise. With that much information, I couldn’t understand how it happened. As I read, I found each offered general philosophies and broad ideas, none provided specifics necessary for my mother to save her life.
Everyone wants to change at least one thing about themselves, and my mother did try to repeatedly.
We may know what we want to become, but not how to get there. For twenty-five years I researched how people learn and change. In examining over 400 studies for a book I wrote (Clinical Skills for Speech-Language Pathologists), it became apparent that all change strategies can be subsumed under ten principles. In this article, a few strategies for each principle are explained with an example of how someone who was perpetually late for work successfully applied them.
PRINCIPLE 1: ALL BEHAVIORS ARE COMPLEX
In the 1960’s, a ventriloquist named Senior Wenches painted the face of a child on his hand, placed a wig on top of it, and conversed with the puppet. He asked her to repeat a long sentence and ended with “easy for you to say”. The hand looked at him and said “difficult”. All behaviors are easy to perform – once you know how to do them. Learning is made easier if the behavior is divided into parts. Master each successively, and the probability of success increases.
Subdivide the behavior. Identify one behavior you would like to learn, then break it into small, self-contained units. In my research and clinic practice I found that almost all behaviors can be divided into smaller units. He wanted to be on time for work. On a sheet of paper, he wrote what being on time involved: waking up, showering, dressing, preparing breakfast, eating, driving, parking, and buying coffee.
PRINCIPLE 2: CHANGE IS FRIGHTENING
We resist change, even when we say we don’t. There is comfort in the status quo. Regardless of how dull or bad it is, it still might be better than the unknown consequences of something new. There’s a joke about a woman who sees an old man on a porch with a howling dog.“What’s wrong with him?” she asks.
The man puffs on his pipe and says, “he’s lying on a nail.”
In shock, the woman asks, “why doesn’t he get off it?”
The man takes another puff and slowly answers, “I guess he forgot what’s it like not being on it”.
People have a fear of the unknown. And that fear can result in holding on to status quo behaviors, no matter how bad they are.
Examine consequences. Examine the positive and negative consequences of your status quo and desired behavior. If there are more positives associated with the new behavior then the status quo behavior, your fears aren’t warranted. If the reverse is true, you’ll need to either create something to change the balance, or forget about changing.
He wanted to stop being late. If not, the next thing he would be late for was the unemployment office. Definitely more positives to change than staying the same.
Prepare observers. New behaviors can frighten people who observe them. Slowly introduce your new behavior to others. Everyone knew him as someone who was never on time. Becoming timely overnight for everything would make people suspicious. He started arriving by 9:00 only on important days.
Be realistic. Unrealistic goals increase fear. Fear increases the probability of failure.
If he allotted the time “normal” people did, he’d never be at work by 9:00. It was more realistic to begin at night and double his morning preparation time.
PRINCIPLE 3: CHANGE MUST BE POSITIVE
What you want to become must be more positive than what you are. As a child, I practiced the accordion only because of parental threats. When I realized they weren’t genuine, I stopped practicing, closed the case and never said “accordion” for twenty years. Since the early research of Skinner, we knew reinforcement, and not punishment, is necessary for permanent change. Reinforcement can be intrinsic, extrinsic or extraneous. Dr. Carol Sansone, of the University of Utah found that at least one must be present for someone to change, two are better than one, and three are best.
Design reinforcing activities. Something is intrinsically reinforcing if the act itself is reinforcing. A good example is wonderful sex. He loved his clothes. Looking at them laid out at night was a joyful experience. An activity should end with something that is extrinsically reinforcing. Extrinsic reinforcement occurs at the completion of the act. The act itself does not have to be enjoyable. I hate cleaning my kitchen, but I’m willing to do it since I like the smell and sight of a clean kitchen. After dressing, he looked into the mirror and saw his evening clothes preparation worked. He looked wonderful!
Reward yourself with extraneous reinforcers. Extraneous reinforcers are not directly connected to the act or its completion. A worker may despise his manufacturing job, get no pleasure from what he creates, but will continue working for a good paycheck. Whenever he made his target time, he would put $20 into his “Hawaii-good-time fund”
PRINCIPLE 4: BEING IS EASIER THAN BECOMING
At a karate class of twenty, an instructor yelled No Pain! No Gain! while forcing us to make legs move in a way God never intended. By the fourth week, only three people remained. Too much pain, you won’t remain! Change shouldn’t be painful. If associated with pain, change becomes punishing. And rational people don’t continue activities that are more painful than rewarding. I’ve found my clients are successful when change requires almost as little effort as remaining the same.
Gradually approximate your goal. Drs. Hunt, Goetz, Alwell and Sailor at San Francisco State University found that performances significantly improved if goals were gradually approximated. On the left side of a sheet of paper, list the behavior you want to change. On the far right, list your goal. Between them, draw four lines. On each line, write a progressive step taking you closer to your goal. Although his ultimate goal was to arrive at work no later than 8:50, starting with that would be too difficult. The first week, he would arrive by 9:10. Then each subsequent week, five minutes earlier, until his goal was achieved.
Minimize the activity. Imagine sitting outside a Taverna on a Greek Island with your favorite person next to you. The sky is cloudless and the temperature in the mid-seventy’s. Wonderful, isn’t it? Oh, I forgot, you can’t leave your seat for the next three days, at all, for any reason. Not so great any more, is it? Even the most wonderful thing looses it appeal if you do it too long. Although he wanted to be on time everyday, he knew the effort required for five continuous days would be too much. For the first week, only two days were targeted.
Simplify the process. Methods of changing often mirror our society: unnecessarily complicated and frenetic.
Simplify your change activities. Through simplicity, clarity arises. Instead of waiting to buy coffee at Starbucks, he’d buy it in his building’s coffee shop.
Prepare for problems. In the best of all possible worlds, everything is perfect. In the best of all change activities, you’ll learn effortlessly, quickly and joyfully. Just as perfect worlds don’t exist, neither do perfect learning situations. Assume you’ll have problems and prepare for them. Dr. Pamela Dunston of Clemson University found cueing to be of the more effective strategies. Getting out of bed when the alarm rang was difficult. For the first month, he’d use a telephone wake-up service, remove the bedroom phone and answer the kitchen phone.
PRINCIPLE 5: SLOW IS BETTER THAN FAST
Everything has its own natural speed. When altered, unpleasant things happen. In the area of change, a common problem is trying to make it happen quickly. Just as you can’t push a river, you can’t change faster than your body or psyche allows. My research shows change is most effective when it occurs slowly, allowing behaviors to become automatic.
Slow down your life. A monk once told me that life is like a stirred up muddy lake. Allow it to calm, and the mud will settle to the bottom, clearing the water. The same is true for change efforts. He gave himself an extra thirty minutes to get ready and no longer ran errands before work.
Gradually introduce new behaviors. You’ve invested years in developing your identity. Rapidly introducing new behaviors into the mix can be disruptive, causing change to become unpleasant. New behaviors should be gradually introduced into your repertoire. Not knowing how it would feel to be a “timely person”, he allowed the behavior to slowly become part of his identity.
Appreciate Your Path As Much As Your Goal. Ursula LeGuin said “It’s good to have an end to journey towards; but it is the journey that matters, in the end.” Don’t devise a path to your goal that’s arduous. The path should be as rewarding as the goal. Becoming a “timely person” was not as traumatic as he assumed. Actually, he enjoyed doing almost everything involved in being on time. Coffee could be a little better, but it was a small price to pay.
PRINCIPLE 6: KNOW MORE, DO BETTER
Mystery, climaxes and surprises are great for novels, but disastrous for people wanting to change. The more people know about the process of change, the more control they have over where they are going and how they’ll get there. Three strategies are effective for increasing knowledge.
Become aware of your behaviors. If you want to change, monitor your behaviors. Although some therapists insist people should be aware of both what they are currently doing and the behavior that replaces it, my research shows it’s sufficient just to be aware of the new one. In a simple journal, he recorded the time taken for each preparation activity.
Ask for feedback. “How am I doing?” is a great question to ask people witnessing your changes. It’s especially important to ask when you’re replacing an annoying behavior. Often when someone changes they’re baffled why nobody comments. Imagine in the past you were demeaning to people you disagreed with. Few would now say “It’s such a pleasure talking with you now since you stopped being a jerk”. If someone compliments you on your new behavior, there is an implication that they didn’t like your old one. That can be uncomfortable for them. If you give permission, according to Dr. Paul Schutz of the University of Texas, and you will receive feedback. At the end of each week he asked a friend how well he was doing with his time problem.
Determine why you succeeded or failed. Often when people succeed, they are satisfied just to be successful. If you know why you succeeded, your success with this behavior can be generalized to others. The same strategy should be used for failures.
Every morning, he analyzed why he succeeded or failed at each daily preparation task.
PRINCIPLE 7: CHANGE REQUIRES STRUCTURE
Many people view structure as restrictive; something that inhibits spontaneity. While spontaneity is wonderful for lovemaking, it’s a sure-fire method for failing in the area of change.
Identifying things that work and those that don’t. When attempting to change, classify all activities and materials you’re using into not helpful, neutral, or helpful. Eliminate unhelpful ones, make neutrals into positives, and keep or increase the positives. He looked at everything he did in the morning. Time-consuming full breakfasts were replaced with quick protein drinks.
Repeat what, how, why and consequence statements to yourself. Although it’s repetitive, review every day what you will do to achieve the goal, how it will be done, why it’s being done and consequences for success and failure. Research conducted Daniel Willingham, Ph.D. of the University of Virginia showed this procedure increased the probability of success by focusing a person’s efforts. At night, looking at his clothes and the ingredients of his morning drink, he reviewed what, how and why he did each thing, smiled, and said “Hawaii here I come!”
Logically sequence events. There are many things associated with learning a new behavior. According to Richard Foxx, Ph.D. of the Penn State University-Harrisburg, it’s important that they are sequenced either by difficulty or timing. Instead of showering, eating, going back to the bathroom to shave and finally brushing his teeth, all bathroom activities were done first.
PRINCIPLE 8: PRACTICE IS NECESSARY
Most people know the punch line to the joke about the tourist asking “how do I get to Carnegie Hall?” The answer – “Practice, practice, practice”. While viewed as trite when performed by a standup comic, it’s the Holy Grail of change. I’ve found the majority of failures occur because this principle is ignored. Practice makes new behaviors automatic, and part of who we are, rather than just a visiting relative.
Use helpers when you need them. Not all behaviors can be learned on your own. Sometimes you’ll need to enlist the help of a trusted friend. When even the telephone answering service no longer worked, he asked his secretary to call. She was delighted to help.
Practice in many settings. If you want to use a new behavior in different settings, practice them either in those settings or similar ones. This is known as generalization. Drs. Stokes and Baer as early as 1978, found generalization to be critical for maintaining new behaviors.
During the first week he would work on timeliness only for work. During the next week, he added his regularly scheduled tennis game.
PRINCIPLE 9: NEW BEHAVIORS MUST BE PROTECTED
A new behavior or attitude is as fragile as a newborn bird. Even when flawlessly performed, it disappears as smoke does when leaving a chimney if not protected.
Increase things that enhance, eliminate those that don’t. Earlier, this strategy was used when selecting materials and activities. When learning new behaviors, there are other environmental issues such as noise, level of alertness, etc., that may interfere with learning. After identifying what helps and what doesn’t, increase those that help, eliminate those that don’t. Drinking a snifter of Cognac before bed made it difficult to wake in the morning. No more alcohol after 7:00pm.
Use aides that help memory. Since the new behavior is neither familiar nor automatic, it’s easy to forget. Anything that helps memory is beneficial. He kept a list in each room of his apartment showing the sequence of things to be done and the maximum allowable time.
PRINCIPLE 10: LITTLE SUCCESSES ARE BETTER THAN BIG FAILURES
Everyone wants to do things in a “big” way: big jobs, big money, and big successes. Often, plans for big successes result in big failures. You’re more likely to be successful if you forget about that big end-goal, and instead, focus on a series of little successes. Each little success builds your reservoir of self-esteem. One big failure devastates it.
Map out a series of progressive successes. Think of each step as a separate goal. Forget about the end goal, you’ll arrive there eventually and effortlessly.He decided how much time to spend on each morning activity. When he began, the stopwatch started. If the activity ended before the allotted time, he rewarded himself by putting money into the Hawaii jar. Then, he began the next activity using the same procedure.
Conclusion. Changing from what you are, to what you would like to become can either be arduous and frustrating, or easy and rewarding. The effort required for either path is the same. Choose the first and you’ll probably recycle yourself endlessly. Apply the ten principles and what was only a slight possibility, becomes an absolute certainty. As they said in an old television game show, “Which door do you choose, Number one or Number two?”
copyright 2002 Stan Goldberg, stangoldbergwriter.comS. Goldberg's article was first published in Psychology Today in 2002. Since it’s publication it has appeared in more than 80 websites (including this one) and was a featured page on MSN.com.
This article can be reproduced and distributed without charge for any non-commercial project if the source is provided.
Washington, August 8 : A task force of the American Psychological Association (APA) has said that for people to "go green", that is fight against global warming, policymakers, scientists and marketers need to look at psychological barriers to change and what leads people to action.
Scientific evidence shows the main influences of climate change are behavioral - population growth and energy consumption.
"What is unique about current global climate change is the role of human behavior," said task force chair Janet Swim of Pennsylvania State University. "We must look at the reasons people are not acting in order to understand how to get people to act," she added.
APA's Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change examined decades of psychological research and practice that have been specifically applied and tested in the arena of climate change, such as environmental and conservation psychology and research on natural and technological disasters.
The task force presented its findings at APA's 117th Annual Convention in Toronto in a report that was accepted by the association''s governing Council of Representatives.
The task force's report offers a detailed look at the connection between psychology and global climate change and makes policy recommendations for psychological science.
It cites a national Pew Research Center poll in which 75 percent to 80 percent of respondents said that climate change is an important issue.
But, respondents ranked it last in a list of 20 compelling issues, such as the economy or terrorism.
Despite warnings from scientists and environmental experts that limiting the effects of climate change means humans need to make some severe changes now, people don't feel a sense of urgency.
The task force said numerous psychological barriers are to blame, including uncertainty, mistrust, denial, undervaluation of risks, lack of control and habit.
The task force identified areas where psychology can help limit the effects of climate change, such as developing environmental regulations, economic incentives, better energy-efficient technology and communication methods.
"Many of the shortcomings of policies based on only a single intervention type, such as technology, economic incentives or regulation, may be overcome if policy implementers make better use of psychological knowledge," the task force wrote in the report.
"The expertise found in a variety of fields of psychology can help find solutions to many climate change problems right now," Swim said. (ANI)