There is no doubt in my mind that when someone says enough! it’s generally a hands up to stop the pain. The pain may be so deep it’s initially difficult to fathom, or it may be a bumpy surface irritation, but whatever it is, you know the suffering must stop. Relief is required, but relief from what? Physical violence? Mental torture? A lifetime of pleasing everyone but you? There are various degrees of pain and suffering as there are degrees of enough!. Yet, no matter what your enough! is, it is always about change.
When enough is enough!, the relief generally sought is usually from something hidden. The values of which are used to be being denied, but can no longer afford to be. In psychology, habitual denial along with a double enough! can represent a physical or emotional hurt so suppressed by oppressive behaviour, that even the sufferer might not be fully aware that the pain was so bad, until it popped out of their mouth as an final enough!. Enough is enough! is the most heartfelt of all change decisions. It is when the crust, over past wounds and hurtful behaviours, has opened. It’s way past time to air out the old skeleton cupboard, cleanse it, and be done with it; but what if you need to fix it up? Anyone who has ever shocked themselves with an enough is enough! will understand the fear that emanates from the pain of the shock that only you can change. A fear of the unimaginable challenge of now being responsible for fixing up the identified problem; Of having to change to fix yourself up and not knowing how to do it. It’s like standing in the middle of a violent street without a friend in the world, including you. It is the sense of being over-burdened and abused. It is the fire inside of anyone who wants to be free. At its’ worst enough is enough! is self-inflicted violence (suicide). At its most balanced it represents the very best of responsible and conscious human change behaviour, but a change about what? “No more tears” sang Donna Summer, but I don’t agree. Enough! can cause the most horrendous of emotional storms (lots of crying included) in its battle to be better. Storms that can cause and storms that can ease mental illness.Susan Jeffers wrote a book called Feel the Fear and Do It Anyway after she’d had enough!
The pain Eckhart Tolle was suffering, before he’d had enough! was so traumatic it knocked him clear unconscious. When he awoke he left University to go into business with his The Power of Now.
Whether pain is a conscious experience, only felt by humans (and animals that experience consciousness) or an unconscious experience felt by all living things (irrespective of species classification) pain is unable to be shared other than through expressed understanding (language of images, sounds and observable behaviour), and felt through empathy and memories of personal experience. When I think about pain, complex emotions spring to mind along with the stories people feel compelled to share, including this one.
A story that immediately pops into my mind is the scientific report I read recently about a bull. The Vet wanted to know if farmyard bull’s, who were being de-horned and castrated without anesthetic, felt pain from this barbaric surgery. My initial reaction to the Vet’s hypothesis was a Homer Simpson “doh!” followed by a rhetorical ” how could he not!” I shook my head at the author for asking such a stupid question. Then a little light went on and I wondered, so I curiously read the whole report, which did confirm my thinking.
The Vet set up a video camera in the stall belonging to Bull, then he witnessed the non-anesthetised castration and de-horning of Bull. Injured Bull was then led into the video observation stall. When the farmers left the observation area, Bull was silently standing and appeared docile. However, once the farmers were out of sight, Bell fell to his knees with emotional bursts of groaning and moaning. The Vet then witnessed the farmers returning to the observation area. He duly noted that, on recognising the farmers return Bull stoically got to his feet, was silent and appeared docile again. After this coming and going was repeated for good measure, the Vet concluded that in his assessment Bull was in pain.
This story made me think of how many employees hide their pain, just like Bull, and for what? I’d say to keep on living. Faced with the return of his captors (expenses), Bull rises to his feet in a stoic show of power and strength (income). Here I find myself pondering on military life, wondering about the similarities and differences between the giving of his life by Bull and the giving of his life by Man and I’m reminded of the Myth of Male Power by Dr. Warren Farrell, the author of Why Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say. In the myth of Male Power Dr. Farrell argues that men are sacrificed in corporate life and in war, and I was going to say the difference being that Man has a choice not to be a Bull who doesn’t get to learn from his peers that there is a different reality. People have parables, fables, legends, myths, stories and facts, that they can read to learn from their peers. People can discover choice in a world abundant in human stories, and then there is the media and information overload and situations in which people are held captive, have little or no power or control.
It’s sad to think that the very knowledgeable Vet, who was fully aware of species pain from his doctorate, had to conduct a crude scientific study just to validate for farmers that Bull’s feel pain. I wondered about professional trust in a global sales industry of analgesics. I thought, there must be an easier way, than re-inventing the wheel to facilitate respect for another’s pain. I thought of political intervention vs. corporate health protection issues while The Show Must Go On by Queen was playing in the background. I wondered if the farmers reply to the Vets evidence about why anesthesia is important, was a legal right to refuse on behalf of Bull.
I thought, What are the consequences of not affording respect to pain? when the Hospital MRI scanner, I entered for the radiologists to identify where my pain might be located, stopped and I was kindly ejected. Even on the physical plain there are times when enough is enough and it’s time to take stock of the situation and pay attention for healing.
“Of all the things I’ve observed in the brain, nothing is more similar to physical pain than social pain,” wrote Tor Wager, Associate Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Colorado in Boulder in his experiment of the human mind. Professor Wagner’s human mind experiment demonstrated how different neural pathways light up when physical (as opposed to emotional) pain was experienced by the students under observation. His results also revealed that both physical and social pain were similarly expressed in the experiment by the pain sufferers. So it seems that sufferers can’t tell the difference between physical and social pain and I wondered how much of that inability to discriminate was based on not paying attention rather than by any strongly held belief.
I felt a nerve sensation radiate down from my paralysed hips into my left leg. It feels like “hot shooting tree roots digging in and pushing out” I shared with the attending nurse who wrote down ‘pins and needles’ (as I discovered later. No wonder the nursing staff were pursing their lips when I collapsed trying to stand) “You might be pregnant”, Ms. Pins & Needles said, maybe referring to Dr. Grantley Dick-Read’s Fear, Tension, Pain Cycle most commonly used to describe the fight or flight response of a woman in childbirth. Didn’t I just tell her that its physically impossible for me to have any more children? My lovely daughter rolled her eyes at me while shaking her head from side to side and I thought, thank God there’s someone in the room who can validate what I’d just thought, but didn’t want to believe. The nurse wasn’t paying attention.
“There are lots of different types of pain” I said to the Intern before telling my woeful tale about how I thought the ‘paralysis’ had evolved. The furrowed brow and pained look in Ms Pins and Needles eyes told me that I wasn’t saying what she thought I should be saying. “Just tell ‘em the symptoms” she warned me later “let ‘em figure it out for themselves”, then she asked me to sit up to swallow more pain killers. My daughter rolled her eyes again and I smiled in appreciation.
When I was discharged from the hospital I carried with me three pages of prescription only analgesic’s that I could buy at any chemist of my choice at my own cost “ to help you with physiotherapy” the Intern said, when a light bulb said “It’s pain not fear”.
It’s commonly thought that organisational change is about working with people who suffer from the fear of change. Yet, what if, it’s not fear that change project managers are experiencing as resistance, but pain? How could this awareness change the way organisational change proceeds? I thought, there are 7 billion people in the world, whose very private experiences of pain represent a complexity of changes. How would validating the pain of those undergoing change influence the communication variables in a change project? I guessed it would all depend on the cultural and political flavour of the organisation in question, but this still didn’t stop me thinking that pain was worth a little more investigation.
When I was able to sit at the computer again, I keyed into Google search ‘pain change’ and within 0.30 seconds I was given 631,000,000 results.
The first image that came up was a white, hand painted pain = change on a grey pebble about the social justice rights of pain. The second was: Nothing stays the same until the pain of staying the same outweighs the pain of change on blue next to red leaves credited to an Arthur Burt. It took a few minutes for my tongue to get around Mr. Burt’s philosophical quote. A little like Peter Piper picked a peck of pickle peppers and “I think therefore I am” and the Big Bang Theory all rolled into one. Arthur’s quote also sounded like Tony Robbins who is quoted as saying “ change happens when the pain of staying the same is greater than the pain of change“ and “Your life changes the moment you make a new, congruent and committed decision”. I wondered if Arthur Burt, who is best known for his commitment to God and for his work preparing people for the glory of God meant Nothing stays the same until the pain of feeling nothing outweighs the feeling of spiritual readinessbecause there are many ways of interpreting his nothing is change statement, for example:
Nothing reigns until the pain of being nothing bursts out of its rage as change, or
Change changes until the pain of those changes inflames the want for a better change.
When considering how much is enough they all comply. What do you think Arthur’s sentence about change means? It’s interesting how individual interpretations of change quotes can influence how it changes.
Thinking through these two quotes ate up a good half an hour. I wondered how long it would take to analyse the 629,000,000 other points of view about change, and thinking about the enormity of the task I felt a pressure pain that needed a little avoidance. This sense of pressure reminded me of front line workers, who are constantly working under pressure to behave and produce the same (if not better) level of customer service, while changing into something new. It made me think about how under-valued strategic change management really is and how more time doesn’t necessarily equate to better outcomes for tactical change project workers. It also made me feel that just because people respect authority doesn’t mean that they deserve dis-respect from any of the authorities they serve. I remembered a time in my youth when I told an executive that I respected him and his reply was a raised voice and aggressive tone that made me immediately furrow my brow and think ‘no, dis-respect wasn’t what I meant at all’. I still think that mutual respect is vital in the balancing of personalities in any workplace and a dis-respectful response to a respectful statement is an undermining of harmonious relations. How do employees, no matter what their role in the organisation, deal with difficult, irrational and abusive people, especially those in positions of authority, who have a degree of control over their life, and in my view ought to know better? I keyed dealing with difficult people into Amazon.com and it returned 1,765 results. Not a lot when compared to the Google change quote results, but still enough to make me think, we are not alone when dealing with un-harmonious actions.
Looking back over the story of Bull, there was no evidence to suggest that maximising profit was the reason why the farmers rejected the Vets evidence that anesthetic was an appropriate order. What if the farmers had other reasons to inflict pain? This made me think of the 2012 movie Compliance, based on a true story about a young female employee who was strip searched by her fast food manager, as the direct result of a telephone call from a man pretending to represent the police. How many people are interested in the strip search over the why didn’t they question the authority message? Are we truly that blind to authority and I guess when trying to keep food on the table and a roof over our heads, the fear of losing work says yes. “Blind belief in authority is the greatest enemy of truth” Albert Einstein is quoted as saying. Did he truly say it? Whose truth are we talking about when considering what is and what isn’t enough? And what is the truth when linked to the pain of no-one paying attention to your role in the story? In my story of the workplace executive, he was terminated by his employer who decided he didn’t respect him enough. Was it karma or the executive setting himself up, against his employer, as a way of saying that he’d had enough? I think it was the latter.
Pain is a universal experience and the most common reason people seek medical care. Pain tells us that something is wrong and we need to do something to change the situation. To aid in the identification of pain:
Algesia is sensitivity to pain;
Analgesia is absence of pain in response to stimulation which would normally be painful;
Hypoalgesia is diminished pain in response to a normally painful stimulus;
Allodynia is pain due to a stimulus which does not normally provoke pain;
Pain Threshold is the least experience of pain which a subject can recognize;
Pain Tolerance Level is the greatest level of pain which a subject is prepared to tolerate right before the inflammation of enough!
The word inflammation comes from the Latin “inflammo”, meaning “I set alight, I ignite” and inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection. Pain from inflammation is caused by white cells (leukocytes) attacking irritants, pathogens, damaged cells, free radicals and stimulants. The job of white blood cells is to keep the body free of destructive pain and to do this they put us through the fire of eradication and renewal, which essentially is pain.
White blood cells represent the natural pain management response of all living mammals. They are deployed by the immune system to defend healthy functioning whenever something goes wrong. White blood cells are provided by the hematopoietic stem cell life-cycle of your bone marrow and they travel the blood and lymphatic system looking for enemies to conquer. The pain that you feel is the fight of constructor against destructor. In change analytical terms, your pain is the war of change against changes. What this means is that pain does not exist in its own right. Pain is the result of certain types of change (nature fighting to restore harmony) and it is the result of certain types of changes (the war of denature) that is refusing to desist. Pain is not an equal of change, because it needs certain change stimuli for it to erupt and that stimuli is the impending loss of something that, if not addressed, will result in more loss or death. In business this generally represents diminishing returns until there is absolutely no revenue left to be found. The role of the change agent is to help the multi-cultural ‘white blood cells’ of the organisation into shifting the business back into market share with its reputation as a profitable entity intact. White blood cells need the support of other blood cells to do their restoration work. Those ‘blood cells’ represent every single employee irrespective of status title or rank. To expect your change project manager to behave like a High Plains Drifter (1973 American Western film starring Clint Eastwood) is delusional unless you want to gain similar results. The internet is brimming with change management guru’s, project managers, teachers, services, books, audios, videos and quotes. In 0.11 seconds, Google returned 786,000,000 results. It seems change management is popular and with this much choice on the market, the chances of change success abounds.
Fear of change is the traditional response of most change agents when faced with employee resistance to change and its always about money. This makes me think of when my daughter was learning how to swim. The pool was full of waiting parents, who were paying individual coaches by the hour to teach their babies how to swim. My daughters coach told her to splash her legs with kicks. I heard the coaches exasperation before I noticed my daughters head was face up, under water. My two year old was struggling to breathe and the coach was pushing her further under the water. The coach’s impatience exploded just before I did and fortunately for my daughter I had the bigger voice. The embarrassed coach was now paying more attention to what she was doing and I saw my daughter breathe. Parents looked away, a couple shook their heads. A colleague of mine had widened her eyes. Her faced had flushed and she was grinning at me for what reason I couldn’t fathom. Was fear the reason why my daughter (whose head was under water) wasn’t responding to the coaches teaching methods or was it pain? How many people were paying attention to what the coach couldn’t see? If I hadn’t of been there, who would have stopped the coach from possibly drowning my daughter because of her intolerance against what she thought was fear? In organisational change how many people truly see why there is a resistance? Is the pain of change felt before the fear of changing or is the fear of change felt first? In other words, is pain the reason for change resistance or is it fear? I think this is a little like asking what comes first, the chicken or the egg?
Walter Bradford Cannon M.D in 1932 in his Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An account of recent researches into the function of emotional excitement? says pain comes first and Walter coined this finding the “fight, freeze or flight response of pain”. In his experiments with mammals, Walter concluded that fear works in conjunction with pain and major emotions. It seems that to feel fear, one firstly has to feel pain. I wondered if this was also true when feeling that enough pain is enough. Experiencing more than ten years of chronic pain, I’ve experienced fear, but the fear wasn’t related to the pain, but a social environment that was un-supportive. In my personal and professional experiences, invalidated pain turns into a fear when the individual experiencing that pain is denied their truth. Everyone manages pain in the best way they can. It may well be your response to their management of it that is causing them to fear.
There is growing scientific evidence for the idea that the fear of pain (especially back pain) can be more disabling than pain itself. As an ex chronic pain sufferer I’d say the inability to manage the pain of others caused me more suffering because of their need for me to help them at a time when I needed help myself. How do people in pain pay attention to the pain in others? A lot of them don’t.
It is well known in the helping professions that the inability to achieve pain relief goals, when managing the pain of others, can overwhelm the sufferer (professional and client) because they are only human. It may also be that in the case of Bull, getting back onto his feet and standing stoically (and powerfully) silent in front of his captors, might have been his way of showing that they should not suffer him further. I know in myself, that the way I handled my inability to accept the seemingly aggressive demands of others when in debilitating pain was to turn my head away from them, close my eyes and search for a meditative silence.
So is fear pain or is pain fear or are they linked by something in the amygdala? Another study into the anesthetic needs of animals says that amygdala it is. Science 2.0’s Scientists Discover Why Suffocation Causes Fear In Mice advised me that it is “the ASIC1a protein in the amygdala” (one of the brain’s master centers of emotion) that is required for fear.
Apparently when a poor little mouse breathes in high levels of CO2, it acidizes his blood and his amygdala, and the ASIC1a protein in the amygdala senses those activities and triggers the fear response. Therefore, should you be suffering from a sense of suffocation, say from swimming pool water or from CO2 in the air, the protein in your amygdala also becomes emotional and this emotion is expressed as fear. So would it be reasonable to consider that when experiencing the pain of being killed, fear is an appropriate response? I think so and I don’t think we need to kill any more mammals to prove this.
The pragmatic reality is that pain exists, despite all of humanity’s best efforts to neutralise it. This is why, when pain is deliberately inflicted upon another, like in the case of Bull, the mouse or anyone in any powerless situation, I think the moral and ethical intention of the pain inflictor deserves more than a casual mention.
The capacity to judge a pain inflictor is not necessarily peculiar to the human species, just because we can ask legal and ethical questions about the moral intentions of a perpetrator of pain in others. Animal altruism is a well documented ethos about how animals sacrifice their own well-being in defense of others in his/her family or group. Despite this, not all humans will recognise nor question the painful intentions of others should the cultural norms be in favour of inflicting pain, passive aggressively or otherwise. The movie The Stoning of Soraya M comes to mind as well as The Devil Wears Prada. I wondered if life would be easier if pain simply didn’t exist.
Congenital analgesia is the rare condition where a person cannot feel (and has never felt) physical pain, despite being aware of vibration. Geneticist Geoff Woods identified the absence of the SCN9A genome as the reason why some humans are completely unable to feel pain and he is excited about its potential to ease the lives of chronic pain suffers. However, for most of us, our SCN9A works very well, albeit more sensitively in some than in others which reminds me of Prinsessen paa Ærten. A tale retold by Hans Christian Anderson about a young woman whose royal identity is established through testing her physical pain sensitivity with a pea put underneath a series of mattresses. Ouch!
However congenital analgesia is no fairy tale for those who have it (movies like the Terminator, The Witches of Eastwick and Unbreakable are science fiction after all). Children with congenital analgesia spend their childhoods wearing protective calipers and casts to protect them from bone breaking incidents they can’t feel. Burning the skin, chewing away of the tongue while sleeping, the intentional pulling of teeth to get more money from the tooth fairy, unknowingly chopping off a finger while cooking, habitually scratching the eyes, un-felt fevers and serious infections, and brutal acts by bullies (keen test their mettle to inflict pain) are all serious issues arising from families living with congenital analgesia. Adults better manage congenital analgesia if they have developed ways of detecting the health warning that is pain and one of those ways is an ongoing monitoring of the numb compression of physical damage. It is the sharpness and heat of pain that is unable to be felt, which means anxiety and depression leading to suicide are not pain free areas for congenital analgesia sufferers. So it seems that people who are unable to feel physical pain suffer, like the rest of us, from the mental pain that comes along with the anguish and depression of not being able to live a normal life.
Anxiety is a painful feeling of fear, of dread, of imminent disaster. It is a normal emotional response to danger and it comes in lots of different shades of what if.
General anxiety is an extreme and uncontrollable anxiety and worry expectation that is not specific to any one thing. Social anxiety / social phobia involves a fear of social or performance situations (such as meeting new people) in which an individual may be embarrassed. Agoraphobia is anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing if an individual has a panic attack. A panic attack is phobic behaviour resulting from an escalation of anxiety the physical symptoms of which can lead the suffer into feeling they are experiencing a heart attack. Claustrophobia involves feeling pain when in enclosed or confined spaces such as lifts, trains or small confined spaces. Insomnia is the chronic inability to sleep normally, as evidenced by difficulty in falling asleep, frequent waking during the night with inability to go back to sleep. Hypochondria refers to an extreme concern or worry about having a serious illness. People with hypochondria have a constant fixation with their body and self-examining and self-diagnosing. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) involves unwanted thoughts and impulses (obsessions) and repetitive, routine behaviours (compulsions). Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder triggered by a major traumatic event or accident. It is marked by upsetting memories, “blunting” of emotions and difficulties sleeping.
Anxiety is related to depression and in 2011, Science News reported that there was an estimated 121 million people, of the global population sample, suffering from the pain of depression. This amounts to about 0.06% of Earths human population of 7 Billion. Depression affects a person’s ability to work and form relationships. At its most severe, depression can lead to suicide and is responsible for 850,000 deaths per year.
In the 1990’s I was in government as a human service employee. One of my town planning colleagues, who was a very polite and unassuming man, left work one night, drove his car to a very high bridge, stopped the car, switched off its engine, opened the driver’s door, got out of the car and jumped off his chosen side of the bridge. The ravine underneath the bridge had dried up in the drought. By the time his body was discovered, he was dead. His pain was so severe he committed suicide and I felt ashamed that I didn’t know he was in pain, because now was far too late to help him change his mind; But it was obvious to not only me, that whatever my colleagues pain was, he’d had enough and he’d taken decisive action to stop it. May he rest in peace.
In a recent Canadian study, Paracetamol was identified as being able to help reduce emotional pain and anxiety. The results of the study found that this common painkiller eases some symptoms of existential dread – the anxiety that arises from uncertainty surrounding the meaning of life and death. The researchers knew from previous research that both physical and social pain (such as bumping your head or falling out with friends) can be alleviated with Paracetamol. Researcher Daniel Randles from the University of British Columbia was quoted as saying “pain extends beyond tissue damage and hurt feelings, and includes the distress and existential angst we feel when we’re uncertain or have just experienced something surreal”. In his view, it seems that a couple of tablets of Paracetamol inhibits the brain signal that says something is wrong.
“Enough of the pain medicating” wrote Anthony Beal, Author of the Escapists. “life is pain, life is inconvenience, life is a tall cool glass of F**K you” and if you believe that you might also believe in stepping away from analgesics and into dealing with pain of physical changes head on. Yet, Hunter Hoffman, director of the VR Analgesia Research Center at the University of Washington says that a reality, other than life, is what is needed to dramatically decrease pain and not just the perception of pain either. His study group of researchers have discovered that a program of Virtual Reality actually does change how the brain physically registers pain.
“What this study shows” said Hunter Hoffman “ is that virtual reality is not only changing the way people interpret the incoming pain, it is changing the actual activity in the brain,” When the virtual reality programSnowWorld was played to the study participants, who were clinically assessed as being in pain, the following results were recorded. The time spent thinking about pain dropped 35%. The unpleasantness of pain registered a 36% decrease. The worst pain dropped by 23%. Physical changes in the pain-related brain activity sites monitored in the study were 50% to 97%, depending on the neural area observed. Hunter concluded that engaging in a virtual reality program, when in pain, reduced pain much like an analgesic, but without the numbing side effects.
I think this is pretty thought provoking information, when considering reverse side of the coin potentials of how Virtual Reality programs might be used to induce pain.
Hunter Hoffman also tested anxiety pain and he described the treatment of a 26 year-old New York City Executive whose Sept. 11 2001 related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) wasn’t responding to traditional therapy. After six weeks of Virtual Reality therapy, Hoffman reported that the woman showed a 90% reduction in symptoms of PTSD and an 83% reduction in symptoms of depression. What does this mean for members of the Virtual World of Second Life? I wondered, and the BBC documentary Virtual Adultery and Cyberspace Loveimmediately sprang to mind. Carolyn a 37 year old mother of four, was severely depressed when she discovered Second Life a computer game of interactive avatars. In the fantasy world of Second Life, Carolyn met Elliot, eventually travelling to London to stay with him only to discover that she couldn’t bring herself to commit real life adultery. Carolyn returned to the U.S.A with her depression unresolved. Her experiences with Elliot wasn’t enough for Carolyn to say she’d had enough of her depression. Hunter’s results puts a whole new slant on the ethical debate about whether or not computer games really do change the composition of the human brain.
Tony Robbins resolved his depression with gym gear and running shoes. His enough was about doing something about his loneliness, binge eating and depression. Not without a fight, he returned to his traditional childhood discipline of exercise and nutrition. Today Tony feels the power as a leading self-development Guru.
I realise that there is no perfect answer, when your body tells you it’s had enough of you ignoring it. This is because no matter what your mind might have you believe, your body is your strength. Whether you help it or not, to help you to think clearly, the pain management strategies you enact on your body will influence your fate. Helping your body to stay well is a preventative strategy called win/win and Google has 81,400,000 pain prevention strategy results on offer to help you.
Typical in all pain management practice is every discipline has its limitations including hospitals and human resource change management practitioners, who can only do so much with the resources they have to work with.
The International Association for the Study of Pain says that pain relief should be a right, even if there is more than 7 billion plus reasons for why it exists. While it’s true that change can be achieved with or without anesthesia, changes that rattle on like a never ending downward spiral roller coaster, can be exhausting for an individual who is suffering from pain. Whereupon I say “enough is enough!” for change without fear.
In case you are wondering: British researchers say the chicken must have come first as the formation of eggs (referring to egg shell) is only possible thanks to a protein found in the chickens ovaries. “ It has long been suspected that the egg came first, but now we have the scientific proof that shows that in fact the chicken came first” said Dr. Colin Freeman representing Sheffield and Warwick Universities. Now to the question about why the chicken crossed the road. ..
© Chris Tyne,
International Association for the Study of Pain http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=About_IASP3&Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentID=1608
Enough is Enough http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4By5LOrRI9M
Fear of pain http://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/obsonline/fear-of-pain-can-lead-to-suffering.html
Fear of Pain leads to Sufferinghttp://www.psychologicalscience.org/index.php/publications/observer/obsonline/fear-of-pain-can-lead-to-suffering.html
Why suffocation causes fear
Virtual Reality http://www.hitl.washington.edu/people/hunter/
Post Traumatic Stress http://www.washington.edu/news/2003/09/09/researchers-turn-to-virtual-reality-to-treat-911-post-traumatic-stress/
SCN9A genome http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/SCN9A
Myth of Male Power http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8Raufh8fP8
Altruism in Animals http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altruism_in_animals
Rape in the Congo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9UZ1-xJ1B8
Stoning of Soraya M http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1277737/
Facts of Painless People http://www.thefactsofpainlesspeople.com/Welcome.html
Virtual Adultery and Cyberspace Love http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/virtual-adultery/
Social Anxiety http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mKkdFSqAxV8
Psychological and Religious Science about Pain: